VoL C3, flo. 37
Chapel Hilts Mominz Newspaper
Chzpzl Hi:i, north Czrcllns, 7ednss5yt Octsbsr 10, 1S74
Fctincfed February 23, 1CS3
to ire vmiMp
by Donald Larnbro
uniteo press international
WASHINGTON President Ford signed
l uesday, witn reservations, the most lar
reaching political campaign reforms in the
The sweeping reforms, a direct result of
1975 and are certain to revolutionize
political campaigns for federal offices.
Ford, who invited all 535 members of
Congress to watch the signing in the White
House bast Room, said he had reservations
about the measure but that the times demand
"There are certain periods in our nation's
history when it becomes necessary to face up
to certain unpleasant truths," Ford said,
witnout mentioning Watergate. . ine
unpleasant truth is that big money influence
has come to play an unseeming role in our
electoral process. This bill will help to right
that wrong." .
His reservations centered on public
financing of presidential campaigns and
political conventions. He also cited "the
First Amendment implications inherent in
the limits on individual contributions and
Ford did not spell out the possible
constitutional violations but apparently
referred to First Amendment guarantees of
freedom of speech. "I am sure that such
issues can be resolved in the courts."
Despite his objections to the public
financing provisions, Ford said he does
support the present $1 checkoff on federal
income tax returns which are divided now
among major party presidential candidates.
. i maintain my strong nope mat me
voluntary -i contribution -will-. not becola,'
mandatory, and that it will not in the future ;
be extended to congressional races. - :
,. "By removing whatever influence big .
money and special interests may have on our
federal electoral process, this bill should
stand as a landmark of campaign reform
The major feature of the comprehensive
package, approved by Congress this week,
are the taxpayer financing of presidential
elections, primaries and national ;
conventions; a tight limit, on political
contributions; and low ceilings on candidate
The legislation also creates a six-member
Federal Elections Commission, with civil
enforcement powers, to administer 4the '
reforms. . !
Major provisions of the bill:
General election financing Beginning
with the J976 elections, the Republican and
Democratic presidential candidates can
receive $20 million each from the federal
treasury for the general election. They can -choose
either federal funds or private
contributions but cannot mix the two. Other
party candidates can receive a proportionate
share of the $20 million based on election
Primary financing Candidates to
become eligible for public financing must
first raise $ 1 00,000, with $5,000 from each of
20 states. The government will then match
the first $100,000 and every private
contribution of $250 up to a ceiling of $5
Convention financing The Republican
and Democratic parties can receive $2
million each from public funds to finance
Contributions Individuals are limited to
overall contributions of $25,000 in a single
year and no more than $3,000 to an
individual candidate $1,000 in the
primaries, $1,000 in a runoff and $1,000 in
the general election. Organizations can
contribute $5,000 to a candidate in each
primary and runoff and in the general
election. Presidential candidates can
contribute $50,000 to their own campaigns,
Senate candidates $35,000 and House
- Spending Presidential candidates are
limited to $20 million in the federal election :
and $10 million in the primaries. Senate
candidates can spend eight cents times the
voting age population or $100,000 in the
primaries and 12 cents of $150,000 in the
general election. House candidates are
limited " to$70,000 in the primaries and
$70,000 in the general election.
Other provisions require candidates to
establish a central campaign committee;
require candidates to report contributions
and expenditures; ban cash contributions
over $100; forbid contributions from
foreigners; prohibit contributions in another
person's name; and treat loans as
The measure also limits honorariums for
elected or appointed officials to $15,000 in a -year
and no more than $1,000 for a single
article or speech; allows state and local
employees to participate in federal
campaigns unless barred by state law;
permits the use of excess campaign funds to
defray the expenses of holding public office.
Staff photo by EH Wrwm
nspubllcsn candidate for U.S. Senate William E. Stevens In Great HsllTussdsy
f . -
- " .
'? ! 9'
President Ford signs the csmpsign reforms bill, a direct result of the Watergsta scandals, in a Yhita House ceremony
by Henry Farber
Access should be provided from Granville
Towers' parking lot onto Cameron Avenue,
University Square representatives said at
Monday night's marathon Chapel Hill
Board of Aldermen meeting.-. " -
The Granville hearing came after a three-.
hour discussion on Laurel Hill
condominiums, after which most of the.
standing-room-only crowd in the police
station courtroom dispersed.
University Square Manager Harold
Today will be mostly cloudy with
periods of occasional rain. Highs today
will be around 70 and lows tonight In the
Chance of rain is nearly 100 per cent
today and 80 per cent tonight. Winds are
SSW at 10-15 miles per hour.
Smith, the key proponent of the Cameron
Avenue driveway at the hearing, asked the .
town to ' relieve Granville South of a
stipulation placed on Granville's land-use
permit when the building was constructed in
1968. The stipulation prohibits access from
Granville to streets other ' than West
Franklin." .... ."".
Smith said he wants to cut Granville's
access to Franklin Street and send traffic to
Cameron so that he can institute a gate
attendant parking plan in University
Square's lot But after the hearing he said
that a variation of his proposed system, with
Granville retaining access to Franklin, was
Under the alternate system, drivers with
Granville parking stickers would be issued
magnetic cards which would be used to open
a special Granville access . gate. If
implemented, visitors to Granville would not
be able to use Jhe residence -hall lot
Opposition to the Cameron access came
from Cameron Avenue residents who desire,
to maintain the residential character of the
by Joel Brinkley
Republican U.S. senate candidate William E. Stevens berated his opponent
Robert Morgan Tuesday night for refusing to join him at the Carolina Union's
Senate candidates forum, held in Great Hall.
Morgan said in September he could not appear at the Union's forum- to which
he was invitee! in June because of previously scheduled campaign appearances
elsewhere. He said his campaign manager, Charles Winberry, would appear in his
But S tevens said in a letter to Union Current Affairs Chairman Janet Buehler last
week that he refused to appear on the same stage as Winberry. He said he must be
allowed to speak first and leave the stage before Winberry came on.
Winberry informed Buehler Tuesday morning that he considered this proposed
"After all the arrangements were agreed to, the format was changed at the
insistence of our opponent's headquarters," Morgan campaign aide Bill Bost said in
another letter to Buehler. "These changes and the confusion that resulted caused us
to conclude that it would be best if we did not participate.
Buehler said Tuesday night she had received the "clear impression from talking
to Morgan campaign aides that Morgan never really wanted to come in the first
"What questions does Mr. Morgan fear," Stevens asked during his speech.
"Is he afraid to answer questions about the James Ladd firing, afraid to clarify
whether or not he committed perjury when he testified he never asked Mr. Ladd for
a campaign contribution? '
"Is Mr. Morgan afraid to clarify his role in Justice I. Beverly Lake's 1960
campaign for governor?" Stevens asked.
Morgan told the state NAACP last week that he worked as Lakes campaign
manager in the 1960 campaign described by Stevens Tuesday as "the last of the
hard-core segregationist campaigns" only because Lake had been his law
professor at Wake Forest University.
As a result of this statement, Lake withdrew his support for Morgan last
"Mr. Morgan seems to have a penchant for making statements that are
diametrically opposed to statements made by other people," Stevens said. "And, in
'this case, his statement conflicts with one made by an associate justice. 01 the
Among his proposals for slowing inflation, Stevens said in response to an
audience question that he favors some reductions of appropriations for long-term
federal environmental programs.
"Why finance programs which won't affect us for years to come," he said, "when
inflation is hurting us right now?"
Driveway proponents contended that
Cameron is no longer just a residential street
but a major thoroughfare.
David Yount, a traffic consultant firm
representative, presented in behalf of Smith
data intended to appease Cameron residents.
If. Granville drivers used. Cameron
exclusively, total traffic on the avenue would
be increased by only 15 per cent, he said.
University Square merchants also testified
that the Cameron access is needed to relieve
traffic congestion on West Franklin Street
Their remarks led to a heated discussion of
traffic problems in general.
Smith was asked after the meeting why no
representatives of Granville Towers
attended the hearing. The Granville
management, he said, wants access to
Cameron and West Franklin and is therefore
opposed to his attendant parking plan.
Smith said he could conceivably separate
Granville parking from the commercial lot
even if the Cameron request is refused. He
said Granville drivers could be required to
enter their lot from Franklin through a
In the first public hearing, as reported in
Monday's DTH, residents of the Morgan
Creek area testified that the proposed
condominiums would overload roads and
sewer systems and change the character of
their neighborhood. "
The aldermen referred sworn testimony at
both hearings to the planning board, who
will make a recommendation for approval or
rejection of the requests. The aldermen's
final decisions are expected in two or three
by Vsslty G. Plpptrt
United Press InUmsUcnsI
WASHINGTON A defense lawye
charged Tuesday that former Presides
Richard M . Nixon "deceived, misled, lied t
and used" former White House aide John C
Ehrlichman "to save his own neck."
"In simple terms, Mr. Ehrlichman ha
been had by his boss, the President of th
United States," William S. Frates
.Ehrlichman's lawyer, saidduringan openin,
statement to the Watergate cover-up tria
. Thus, Ehrlichman joined former Whit
House Counsel John W. Dean III as a
accuser of the former president. Dean wa
scheduled to take the stand as th
prosecution's first witness.
On trial for conspiracy in the allege
attempt to conceal top-level involvement ii
Watergate are Ehrlichman; former Whit
House chief of staff H .R. H aldeman; forme
Assistant Attorney General Robert C
Mardian; and Nixon re-election lawye
Kenneth W. Parkinson.
With the jury out of the room. Judge Johi
J. Sirica set a hearing for Wednesda;
afternoon on whether Nixon, an unindictet
co-conspirator, should be compelled t
testify in the case.
Both Ehrlichman and chief tria
prosecutor James F. Neal have subpoenaed
the former president, .but Nixon's doctor
say he is too ill with a phlebitis ailment t
make the. cross-country trip to Washington.
Frates said that time and agaii
Ehrlichman recommended a full disclosure
of the facts of Watergate "let it all hanj
"Richard Nixon prevented Ehrlichman'!
disclosure of the facts over and over again
"Richard Nixon deceived, misled, lied t
and used John Ehrlichman to cover up hi:
own knowledge and activities while publicb
stating that J ohn Ehrlichman was one of th
finest public servants he had ever .known,
"He was deliberately withholdinj
information from him, covering up to sav
his own neck."
Frates referred to a taped March 20, 197;
White House conversation in which Nixoi
remarked to Haldeman: "Ehrlichmar
doesn't know a goddamn thing about
On April 30, 1973, Nixon announced the
resignations of Haldeman and Ehrlichman.
"He called it a resignation but it was a
forced resignation," Frates said. "The
evidence will show that the President called
John Ehrlichman to Camp David... and
told him, John, you have been my
conscience but I didn. follow your advice.
It's all my fault If I had only followed your
advice we wouldn't be in this situation."
David Bress, attorney for Mardian, in his
opening statement said Mardian was
involved in the case in a very peripheral way.
Bress said that three days before the June
17, 1972, break-in at Watergate, Mardian
wrote Mitchell a memo just found in the
National Archives saying the Committee
to Re-Elect the President was "a fragmented
group of people . . '. who will in the long run
cause more problems than they will solve.
"The government did wrong in naming
Mardian as a defendant," Bress said.
wait for 'reair jobs
by Sid Smith
Asst. Features Editor
77m is the third in a series of articles
examining the effect of the financial crunch
on students and University life. Today, a
graduate student looks at the ever-tightening
Ph.D. market and the bleak economic
outlook for graduate student life.
For some, the Ph.D. glut means only a
minor delay in plans.
"I didn't get a job this year, but I'm not
giving up. I've taken a temporary post, and 1
hope to find something next fall. Just one
mpre year of tuna casseroles, I guess.".
While for others, a complete reversal.
"1 wrote over 500 letters, attended two
professional conventions and travelled all
over the state seeking a job," sighs one
unemployed gentleman. "Next year I'm
going to law school"
But for a large number of unemployed
Ph.D.s and their families, the college,
teacher explosion means an abrupt change in
lifestyle that will require a long and
indecisive period of adjustment
' 44 At the time of this writing, I haVe just
finished a bit of style polishing for an article,
and tomorrow I report to the state
unemployment office to stand in line and get
hassled for. my weekly, check," Dr. Adam
Sorkin, UNC class of 72, recently wrote the
English department "Last year I completed
. two years of, it turned out temporary
employment at Stockton State College. Nov
I take care of our two little girls every day
while Nancy works; and without bitterness
I hope to become re-established in-
profession I like and which so far ha:
offered me far less, I feel, than I have offeree
it And, ob-la-di, ob-la-da, life goes on.;."
Recent reports indicate that education h
on the way out at least in terms of quantity
Enrollments are dropping off, money tc
higher education is dwindling, and some
.institutions are shutting down entirely. As
Jane Smith, UNC placement counselor foi
college teaching positions puts it,"Whenevei
the economy gets tight, education is oneoi
the first priorities to go."
When the bottom fell out of the Ph.D
market around 1970, graduate students
consoled themselves with the confidence thai
the overcrowding was a temporary
phenomenon and that the employment dam
would break any day. These days few cling tc
such thin hopes. With college student
enrollment in perpetual decline and the level
of jobless Ph.D.'s at suicidal heights, the
doctorate crunch is now regarded as s
decidedly permanent problem.
So permanent, in fact, that the tales of woe
no longer surprise or shock. "Dante's Down
Please tern to PhJ3. GLUT, pss 4