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2The Daily Tar HeelThursdayJ April
By DONNA LEI NW AND
Creating artificial intelligence
addresses the question of whether a
machine can be built like a person or
whether a person is a machine, a
philosophy professor at the University
of Pittsburgh told an audience of 70
people Wednesday in Carroll Hall.
John Haugeland spoke on "Artificial
Intelligence and the Western Mind" as
part of the Carolina Symposium 1986,
"Technology, Society and the
"Artificial intelligence is the very best
horrible mistake psychology has made,"
Haugeland said. "There is a conception
of the mind which underlays the
apparent theory behind artificial
The computational theory of thought
defined thought as the manipulation of
symbols to rational rules, he said.
Cornell sMraes doMiM Mstt week of Ami
By SUZANNE JEFFRIES
If you haven't seen Halley's Comet,
now would be a good time to look
because during the last week of April
and into early May the comet will be
leaving the sun's and Earth's paths,
assistant director of the Morehead
Planetarium James G. Manning said.
March 8-23 was a good viewing time,
he said, because without the moon in
the morning sky it was darker and the
timdeinit legislataire eairmis lioiniOFS at
By RACHEL STIFFLER
The UNC delegation to the 49th
Annual Session of the N.C. Student
Legislature enjoyed recognition this
year, receiving the award of best large
school delegation for the 1985-1986
Several UNC students received
awards or were elected to offices during
a week-long session in Raleigh that
ended Sunday. The 31-member UNC -delegation
was the largest of the NCSL,
which was attended by about 250
Steve Epstein, a junior and delegation
chairman, was elected the new governor
of the NCSL. Katy Whitener, senior
and session coordinator, received the .
Carlisle Award, the most prized indi
vidual award which is given each year
to the most outstanding delegate.
After being sworn in as governor
Sunday afternoon, Epstein appointed
sophomore Brandon Jaynes as his
executive secretary. ;
Whenever you have a question or problem of any
kind, we have someone who will listen. We have a
large, young, enthusiastic staff living right on the
property. We're always there to answer questions,
provide counseling, or to just be friends. Come to
Granville, and share with us a worthwhile college
1 985-86 GRANVI LLE TOWERS ON
GRANVILLE TOWERS at University Square
19 8 6
"If this theory is true, we, ourselves,
you and me, are as much computers
as anything made of copper and
silicon," he said.
The concepts behind artificial intel
ligence began with Thomas Hobbes, a
17th century English philosopher,
. Haugeland said. Hobbes said thinking
is a mental discourse, mental operations
are conducted internally and thinking
is best' when it follows rational rules of
reason, Haugeland said.
"Hobbes , fundamental difficulty is
1 that, he cannot tell the difference
. between minds and books," he said.'
comet showed up better.
Also, the comet was higher above the
horizon and could be seen by the naked
eye or through binoculars, he said.
Manning said that the comet would
still rise in the morning sky until about
the second week in April. Viewing
would not be as clear, he said, because
the moon now lightens the morning sky.
Also the comet will , be less than 10
f)porpoc Helrw tV vrriT"Tv which is
Senior Jim Slaughter was elected
speaker of the legislature's House of
Representatives on Wednesday. Patrick
Bradshaw, also a senior, was elected
speaker pro tem of the House.
"The Chapel Hill delegation defi
nitely dominated all the elections and
the awards," Slaughter said, adding that
the success of the delegates was a result
of a "tremendous amount of work done
on this campus all year long."
The NCSL, founded in 1937, is the
oldest and largest state student legis
lature in the country, he said. Over 5,000
students from 25 schools in the state
have been members of the organization
in its history.
The NCSL has two fundamental
purposes, Slaughter said. It provides a
forum for members of the state's college
population to express their opinions on
current issues and to gain experience
He said the delegates did research
throughout the semester on the two bills
they proposed to the student legislature
"Meaningfullness depends on prior
A question connected with artificial
intelligence is the mystery of original
meaning or where thoughts are derived,
Rene Descartes, a 17th century
French mathematician and philo
sopher, also contributed to the concept
of , artificial intelligence by translating
geometric problems from Euclidian
geometry to algebraic terms and then
solving them, Haugeland said.
"In effect, traditional algebra and
geometry had become to different
notations, either figures or numbers,"
he said. "Neither notation is intrinsically
related to anything.Geometry, algebra
and physics are just applied math. Math
is not concerned with specific matter,
Haugeland said there was a paradox
lower than it has been.
The comet rises now at about 3:00
a.m., Manning said. By the last week
in April, viewers can see the comet in
the Southeast after the sun goes down,
Manning said viewers need a clear
night and a low Southern horizon with
no trees, houses or hills to block the
view of the comet.
Moonlight makes the comet harder
for adoption. The approved bills are
compiled and presented to the N.C.
General Assembly and prominent state
leaders for their consideration.
A bill written by Slaughter that would
provide for the appointment, rather
than election, of all state officers of
North Carolina except for the lieutenant
governor and governor was passed by
the NCSL Thursday.
Slaughter said he proposed the bill
because the present system of determin
ing whether officials are elected or
appointed bases the decision on the date
the office was created, not on the
importance of the position.
"Right now, North Carolina elects
more state officials than virtually any
state in the country," he said. "This bill
wouldn't change the law. It would
simply put a referendum before the
people so they could decide who they
want to elect and who they want
: Another advantage of allowing more
officials to be appointed is that it would
-. . . '
- SITE STAFF
to mechanical reason.
"Reasoning is the manipulation of
notational symbols according to
rational rules," he said. "The manipu
lator pays attention to what the symbols
and the rules mean. If the manipulator
does, it is not mechanical.
"Meanings are not mechanical. If a
manipulator does not pay attention, it
cannot reason. The manipulator reads
the symbols in the relevent mind, figures
out what they mean, looks up the rules,
and applies them. Thoughts are needed
to carry out the manipulation."
Behaviorism set the stage for artificial
intelligence, Haugeland said.
"Computation is the rule guided
manipulation of symbols which com
puters do very well," he said. "Given
the right system, if you take care of the
syntax, the semantics will take care of
itself. Computers can take care of the
to see, so early morning is a good
viewing time, he said. Binoculars will
allow viewers to see the comet's head,
but not very much of its tail, Manning
The comet was named for Edmund
Halley, an English astronomer who
believed that comets had definite paths
in the solar system and appeared
regularly. Halley's Comet was last near
the sun in 1910.
take some of the politics out of the
departments of labor, agriculture and
insurance, all of which currently have
elected officials as their department
heads, Slaughter said.
A bill written by Epstein calling for
stiffer penalties for those convicted of
selling controlled substances to children
under 18 was passed Friday, Slaughter
"This bill would hopefully stop some
of the problems we are having with
drugs among (people of) such a young
age," he said.
Ambassador to speak
on U.S. intervention
Charles M. Lichenstein, the deputy
U.S. ambassador to the United Nations
from 1981 to 1984, will speak at 8:00
p.m. Thursday in 100 Hamilton Hall.
His speech, "The Reagan Doctrine:
Intervening on Behalf of Freedom," is
sponsored by the UNC College Repub
licans and the UNC political science,
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U.S. Air Force
in New Mexico;
From Associated Press reports
M AGDALENA, N.M. An Air
Force search-and-rescue airplane
carrying 11 crew members crashed
in a ball of flames Wednesday in a
desolate area of west-central New
Mexico, and authorities said all
aboard were killed.
The HC-130 plane was assigned
to Kirtland Air Force Base at
Albuquerque, said Kay Peterson,
representative from the base. Ruben
Leal, public affairs training specialist
at Kirtland, said the airplane was on
a routine training mission.
Winnie Mandela returns home
after government lifts restrictions
JOHANNESBURG, South Africa
(AP) Black activist Winnie Mandela
triumphantly returned home to the
black township of Soweto Wednesday
after her lawyers said the government
ended 23 years of restrictions on her
Meanwhile, Bishop Desmond Tutu
openly called for punitive economic
sanctions against South Africa for the
first time, risking a charge of treason.
Ismail Ayob, Mandela's lawyer, said,
"The government is abandoning its
attempts to uphold the banning order"
Banning orders are used by the
government to suppress dissent by
restricting the activities and contracts
of prominent opponents of apartheid, .
the system under which 5 million whites
dominate 24 million voteless blacks.
Mandela, the wife of jailed anti
apartheid leader Nelson Mandela,
returned to her four-room home in
Johannesburg's black township of 1.5
million people in the afternoon,
embraced by neighbors and surrounded
by school children.
Asked whether she saw the step as
a concession by the government, Man
dela told reporters: "No one is grateful
for a right that is rightfully ours."
Ayob said Mandela remained "listed"
under the Internal Security Act, mean
ing that she still may not be publicly
quoted in South Africa.
But he said the government's decision
not to uphold the order "would have
the effect of setting aside the banning
Mandela, the best known of a handful
of anti-apartheid activists still under
banning orders, and Ayob spoke to
reporters at a hotel outside Johannes
burg before she returned to Soweto.
There was no immediate comment
from the government on Mandela's
statements or on Tutu's call for eco
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Tutu,; the black Anglican bishop of
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Eastwood talks 'tough'
Actor-mayoral candidate Clint
Eastwood broke up a fight and told
the present mayor's campaign man
ager to "just shut your face" during
a news conference on city hall steps.
Mayor Charlotte Townsend had
called the conference to respond to
complaints that registered voters had
Johannesburg who won the Nobel
Peace Prize in 1984 for his anti
apartheid campaigning, told a news
conference: "I have no hope of real
change, .from this government unless
they are forced."
"We face a catastrophe in this land
and only the action of the international
community by applying pressure can
save us," he said.
Tutu declined to specify what types
of sanctions he would like to see
imposed, saying individual countries
should decide for themselves. But he
said sanctions should be "concerted and
united" and imposed immediately.
Elsewhere, police headquarters in
Pretoria reported several incidents of
In a township outside Port Elizabeth,
a black police officer was injured when
his home was hit with stones and
gasoline-bombs, and blacks near the
town of Mossel Bay stoned and set fire
to a bus, injuring the driver, police said.
Most black students returned to
classes Wednesday after Easter recess,
heeding a weekend decision by a
conference of parents, teachers and
But low attendance was reported in
some areas, including the black town
ships around Cape Town and the tribal
homeland of Lebowa in the north.
The decision not to resume school
boycotts, which involved up to 200,000
students before being halted last
December, was made Sunday in Dun
ban at a conference of 1,500 teachers,
parents and students organized by the
National Education Crisis Committee.
drive ending today
Thursday is the last day of the voter
registration drive sponsored by UNC
Student Government. Prospective
voters may register from 10ra.m. to 2:00
p.m. at a table set up in front "of the
;s Union. i4 .-
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