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amaa VMM - apa ' --j-
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P V I S H E D (wi i k lt) B yUC AS AND A. H . 8 O YJ
DOLLARS fB tSASfJ
RALEIGH, fj. C.
Mi; o rc .v.-
FRIDAY, JUNE 4, 1813.
1 .rt. ' j
of ethf gnnts prcviU over those of the ancient na- porderancV...w the infloenecs of .tbar quarter J .tod nid that -they have done, it." ! tny man b$ -Ufe$;
and that a ,Wack popdlation outbalances: perfect tft,olkical inslgnidcancy of this part oft lleve tbtrKa the inSikcnce of Massiysetts. QV
: - the white t that from woods, and lakes, and de-j the countiy
N OAl'ION.; -r a-rt wilierriesSes.! legislators tssud controulinci. This, then, is the undeniable condition of the
helivered before the fVashligton, Qentvolent Socj..the destinies of seaboard peopk, paralizing all people of the commomfeoUh of Massichusttt
I ty0 MiMachwtcttSy onthe 30w day o' 'r their interests and darkening all heir prospects ; : Thai proportion of polUicai power whielHhey pos
-all this riottvithstancltnc, suit the condition ; sessed at tne time ot tne. adoption ot the consul u
might be endured, upon the principle that it was tion, is gone i and the proportion which remains
1813, being tne anmvtraory of taejwai inuug
T io;i oJ president nathtngton f '
8y JOSIAH QtJIMCy.
The degree, in which the proportions of poli-
J Dower; amonir the siatcs ot mis uwon,
lave hsen changed, bv lime and usurpation,
r- J , . r- a
?nr th( ftdont'mn of the constitution, admits Ol
r - u . . - V .a. ti
very varied and extensive iuustration. isnan
onBne mvself ibthfr Utemcnt of ope or two
rather hv war of indicating the state of
- -J , . i .
hitwts than describios; -it. This cannot ijedone,
Jn.iS its UticB Vithm , ll had signed the! bond, ; stiujuojo'ris this ttatflof things which ought
fat occasion, (oinow tne progres ,o umiiwi s notwithsunding he enormous iuequaJity ot.to gwe content towise and yirtaous mindT
tower to th south and thefwest, aiate-this
m ,1111 lilUW ' " K ' " " J - -------
fcorMitu'.ion, the three $tatcst ICenfuckyi, Temeuee
d somewhat more ttt3n one hundred thousand
bisWfnd had perceptible weight in the nation
IT scale.. They now, tonether, contain a hite
population, somewhat exceeding. that of Masaa-
Lhusetts Of cowimerce and natigauon tney
iavi none: at IcaH none- worth the estimate.
the ref enue of customs which they have paid
th fairj-esult of the compact. We. had agreed
that all the people, within the ancient limits of
the United States, should be placed cn the same
footing, and had granted undoubted right to Con-
gtesf to admit states, nt will, within the ancient
has no one characteristic (Sfequslrty or justice,
whether we .take age oigntellrgtbce, or enjierpnse
or wealilnof physical strength or population, as
tne. measure oivwnt is)wst ana equal, rius pro
portion, thus diminished Is every day diminishing
liraitt t we had done more, we had submitted to still further, in a frcometrical ratio, by the opera.
thro our rights and liberties, and those of our j tion of changes, partly theneffects of the fair prin
children, into common stock with tne outnern ;Upiesof ourassoqation, ana partly ot usurpation,
men And their slaves r and had agreci to be con- j Such is the result of that " eKperience" td which.
tent : with bat remaiaed,, after they and their yashuigton defers 14s as the test of every con-
Mti fio nian startle' at' this .Question, as though
it was' a vttl thrown over some dreadfill image,
the condition, hofconjjiight, in such case have re.
quired that wehbuld be silent concerhing-otir
best rifHtts '- At!east, in such case, want of which the mind dar not distinctly contemplate.
sense, or want of spirit, would find- an ample re t Inquiries of this kind belong to the condition of
fuge from self reproach, inlhe acknowledged 'freemen. They are sancjUone4 by the spirit and
solemnity of the obligations. v lienor or the constitution. Corrupt men irv pow
But what.shall we sav to (what s al.'ed) the ;er, who are trampling upon the people's rights
admission Of Louisiana into the Union? What, and laying snares for their liberties, will always
shall we say to the "annexation of a territory gfc8.-'stis;matise such inquiries as schemes for thesis
ter ttmn the whole of the old United States ?' solution of the Union, liut what Says the spirit
What, to ihe asstrted TKer. idted. alreadv in 'of VVashinetom ? f 4tThe necessitvof reciOrocal
r . . . i i r r . -- . . . . - . " .
jtnee the aaoptionot the consutuiion is, scarcely,; one instance, exercised, of making states beyond checks in the exercise of political power by divid
mitem in the. books of the Treasury. Yet these j tne Mississippi, as unlimited in point of number ing and distributing it into different "depositaries,
itatea, on titrf question touching the interest t)fas ofextentj The indifference with which that and constituting each the guaidian of the public
hat commerce andnavigatkr so , vita' tythe '. usurpation of power has been viewed in this part weal, ; agaiost invasions by the others, has been e
jrosperi " of Massachusetts, have twenty of the country, is an event, as astonishing as it vinced bv exDerimenis ancient and modern : some
Jvntfcs in tne noitftc 01 uepreseiKauveav wiuic ucrr
,txentyi and while . Massachusetts has
otes in the Senate, they have '.!
;s ominous.-lotwithstindmK tne gentral nature ot them in our owrj. country and under our own
""ofthe terms of the constitution, relative to the eyes. To preserve thera must be as necessary as
admission of new states, there is not a shadow ot to institute them. If. in the oninion of th oeoDle
Without reference to other considerations and; Drttence from the history of the period an, the -the distribution or modificaion oftheconstitution-
riewed 6ny in relation to theVtnost familiar nofcnown statrxif public opinw
mm n ijuuj aUU ruuwiijf,. w auouwon, mat me aannssion oi any siaies wcrciscrrecieiL oy an amendment, in a way wnicn mc
Ut a mass oi population, scarcely more man contemplated, or authorised except those within
iquil to tht of Massachusetts, recentof twenty, tbe ancient limits. And yet we have witnessed
e.r collection, for the most part . emigrants this astonishing seizure of power made bv the
rom E' rope, ortht elder stales, located a ihuu ;nneral government, under- toe influence of the
and miles fiom the seaboard, knowing nothing ot southern and western states, almost without a
is interestcarjiig.noihiaftJLbout. them, in fact, murmur; seizure of. power, which unsettles
avmg a direct interest irt embarrassing them, an ( He proportions f political influence enaran-
he j'd have one tenth mire weight in the house of torl k nn.dm.mn D t ,.p ik.
, ' - - -- - "O V " , VJ, flJV WIIJUIU 10 II I1IIIV VUV l WIS
Sr.epTfSentatives, and three times more in the sen-! ru'sof Washington. : Bad and hunrilitating, in
fate, than the ancient, rich, intelligent powerful ,t his respect, as was the crhdiiio'i of Maasarhu
hvpxl uion of Maachusetts ? A people, whosejUetis, under the principles of the real constitution.
infractions, haWts. mannera, industry, interest'; yaTunder the principles of the covstitirtion as! this . commonwealth the individuals composing'
jatH mtndplcs have been nearly two Centuries (modified by this usurpation, its condition is anithis staiewwe to the people of the commonwealth
Vaosolidatinfr". A people, who have arts andihundrr ftM nrnr. Yet nn. f i m . .n..:, nn.;,..! :mKn.
trnnduu. Tiryoo . s,iic, ssjutii iuuc wussc? 'uze ,t Louisiana iS snoken ot as b&mp- an in-
s nearly half a million- of tons of shipping ; jtecral part of this nation, with as much indif-
i .tii. . a . a . . . -J-'- -
no an me capital a;ia cuiuvatca indulgence ne- lerence. as thn ii had h-en adm tted hv an un.
eSsary for its employ 1 iqueBtionable authority. We heir of the l.Ten'ion
lake another fact. The states of Virginia of cuttine- it uo into nf.w states, with as much
,nd Geortria. together, possess a white 'DODuIa 1
Jon, but a little exceeding that of Massachusetts. ' matter. Yet everv addi.onal state augments that
et throueh the eflect of the Slate ratio, and the detressin? ineniialiiv nf nnliilralinnnenre. whi.-b
rinciples- of the constitution, while Massachuj already grinds our interests in the dust; rivys
us possesses, in-me senate, ana tne nouse oi-t)ur chains, and makes more certain and hopeless
presentatives, twenty two votet, they possess, the condition of our oolitical servitude.
Vt , JL I All LnA .U!m1 T Un., Mk . a . . ,-. m mm9 a
iw-i9-wiMmi.uai5in. wnat tnint you would tne spirit l washing
sned,, Virdnia, Oeoreia. Kcntuckv, Tenntssee, tnn have rbI nnnn th5 nWr.t 4 f!miirl hr r.,
l ; . ! ! i - i r r . . t . '
nize our present constitution, ridden by this In
constitution designates. But let there be no change
by usurpation ' Not only are the opinion of the
people," and the power of the states, the natural
" guardiensof the public wea," and tlie declared
constitutional resort, in cases of usurpation,
or of manifest changes in ' thea; distribution
of consit utional power, dangerous to pojitical safe
ty ' but also there is in the nature of things, para
mount obligations which make such resort impc.;
rious as well as constitutional. As it is with the
' people of every, state, so it is with the people of
snd Ohio,, have paid into the treasury of the U.
bta?-s, j?n customs, scarcely more than 8 15,00q cubaa.r that constitution which he "had framf!
POO since the adoption of the constitution. I nr rpfAmmnrlff1 Iri ihi&rmmtrv ? Tsi t nrvt nt
tonous, that the extent of territory, even as it
existed, at the time of the adoption of the con '
stitution. was among the mosf serious objections
T-e S p,le state of Massachusetts has paid more
ban firty , two millions net revenue. Yet upon j
very questtoti touching the life blood of our com
erce, while; Massachusetts, in both branches of
Avmba iMic luiy VltCt 1 ILUVC ULUCI IStl
to the success of the ejprriment." What said
Washington uponThe lopick ? " Is there no
aouot wneiner a common government -can em
e powerauamed, in the house ofreprcsenta-j brace so large a' sphere ? Let expericid- solve
s, by the effect of the slave ratio ts twenty, .it is Well worth a full arid fair experiment.
rr a. - w a v t a t . .
rvoics. ne siaie -oi Massacnusetts nas out vet. acarelv had twmtv otirs tlans thp-n
twenty. ' So that this great and ancient and once cient limits not vet half oeonled fwhenl bv an u.
proud, but now, corlstituitonally speaking, humble surpation, as palpable, as it is, to us, ruinous, rew
commonwealth has absolutely no more weight in 'territories have been add-d,(as it is calIed)tolhe
the national scale, than a species of beings, in foct United -itatcs of dounle the ariciei.t extent ! An
,S destitute Of Political fiehtS, as the.brUte Crea. ennnlitv 'in nnt'ilira! .rio-hte with fho nlri IT.-.fl
tion Upon theoretical principles, can any thing . Sitates has been extended to a mixture of French
be more sbamstul I Tfae practical effect is worse men. . Sbaniards, emigrant Americans. CivoU-a
than the . theory. ' ,.v ' ! and Neeroes . Alreadv the whole weieht of the
r remaps, nowever, it may lie said that mis evil J.fitate of Massachusetts is neutralized. b this u
temporary, and that the causes, which have j surpation. in the senate of the' U. S. And soon
proilaced this inequality, ar ceasing to operate.
The fact isi directly the reverse The causes are
permanent, progressiveand unlimited. All the
noTicy of the government is shajied to strengthen
them The constitution, itself, has been violated
n order to augment the oppressive prepondency
oi that quarter of the country ' ' ' .
- ixauirai causes, ana me emoarrassmeni oi me
industjy-Qflthe Atlahtia aiatea, still continue to
auj-nent the population i that country, wiih an
unparalleled rapidity. Within the next.ten years,
nu .addi jyp of three more states, on.this side ' of
tne Mississippi, is spoken ofconfidently. . Som
sav there will be nore Out be they more, or be
isisy less, of this rest assured, that they will be
multiplied with no sorf of reference either to the
convenience, or the necessities even of the peqple
of tlwse territories, but solely with reference to
the political wants of the leaders of the predomi-J
rating cabal, at the seat of government, aft with
a distinct view, to create a new counterpoise, in
case the political scile appear to vibrate ih favor
rc inieresis oi wis quarter or ine union.
tven this state of .thncs, humiliating as it is,
jight be endured. Notwithstanding. it presents
wtle- cojiifprt, for.. tht present,-, and less consola
tionJor the future ; notwithstanding it indicate,
- ... u.liv I V'JIJU, I w.l, u v 111V I u . w ' k fi
: surpation, in tne senate oune u. .Ana soon
the present miserable remnant of its political pow.
er will be trampled under the hoofs of V parti-coj
loured race ot heV states, to come ruthing into
sovereign infl-ience, from those boundless woods
and prairies. Is this thai full and fair expe
rime nt," of the practicability of a republican gov
ernment, over the ancien. extent, which Wash
ington recommended I - Before the admission of
newjegionsfjmUmited extent, would not the
spirit of Washington have dictated that the result
of the exrridaent withinjhe ancient limitashould
first ,have been satisfactorily ascertained i If
thf result of a republican experiment, was, in.his
judgement, uncertain, within the ancient limits on
account of (heir extent, is it not altogether hope
less, now that those lire its are more than dou
bled f The truth is, that this annexation of Lou.
siana " to'ith'. United S.ates, is, as irreconcilable
with the spirit of a republican government, as it is
unauthorised by the principles o our constitution
In fact, tfye influences, which settled that ques
tion, had no regard for either the one or the other.
In its true point of view, and considered accor
ding to its rea nature, the admission fas it is
called) of Lousiana '.into the'JUniQn was a polit
icriotrigue. having for its object, tosbift the"'ii-
lanre of power stui larther to the south and tiie
xiresf ; aid bcin intended by extending thai Sphere
native snd perpetual, true it is, that tne peo.
pie of thii commonwealth have transferred a cer
tain specified portion of allegiance, originally due
to them from the individual'vcoru posing their statt
to a certain extrinsic association, called the Uni
ted States.'"" This transferred portion of allegiance
is not only limited in its nature ; but it is also
conditional. The condition is that the) principles
of the constitution should be preserved inviolate.
.Whether any such vicfutiort hve occurred, or
whetherit be such ases3entially .Tects the secu.
riies of their rights and liberties, are questions
which the peoe of each of the associated" States
are 'compe'ent, not only to discuss, but to decide.
And w-:, in this commonwealth, have reason to
thank the Great Giver of every good gift, that he
has bestowed upon this people, hot only the right
to make, but the power to support, any decision
to which they may b called, by a manifest viola
tion of their liberties. If the people of the common
wealth of Massachusetts shall ever Income slaves
it wUTue irom choice and not from nature. It
will be, not because they have not the power to
maintain their treedom, buibecause thoy are un,
worthy of it. The question iecurs-Is this, our po.
littical state, safe r honorable ? rr-.-'t
As to those who maintain, if, indeed, there be
any such, that the political rights of a state ae
safe ; and that its prosperity is sufRcientiv secure,
not withstanding, it either has no proportion , of
political power, or a very small proportion, in
comparison with the creamesss of its interests, I
know not how to reply. An assertion of thjs kind
exhibits to-limited an acquaintance with the na
ture f lh( human heart, and with the histsry of
man, that;he who should make it, can scarcely
be deemed thd subject of argument. Certainly the
plainest Ulctaies of reason teaches, th?t as among
the; independent nations,, no single nation is ..safe
except n ' proportion to us physical power,
There is no more friendship 'among states, in poi
litics, than there is fiiendship among men, in
trade, If an old, rich,Taborious, plodding! state
become associated, in a political compact, with
riewfdesperate and eunning tatcs,iruuc!t ajay
that the whole or a great proportion of the poh,
tical power should be vested in these last states,
iVAhej'e need)f any ghost to-tell-H3-rW hat-would i
ue ine resuu r isnnoi iucvuaoie mat me , po
licy of an association, thus constituted, would be
so conducted as to turn, the wealth of that rich
state into; the coffers of theredominating state,
arid its 'population into their territories ? 1 The
t emptation is too strong for man, in the ordinary
states of human virtue to -resist. . Yet, we every
day iiear the inquiry made-" Have th predom:
inating influences of the southern and western
states, any-interest, in embarrassing our com
merce or navigation ?" 16 this' I answerr
They hav6 embarrassed it. . T'hey- have-i rostra
ted-it? ' I should think this; jvas answer enough.
That it is embarrassed, that it is prostrated, .1
t&ink no man will deny. As little (Jaq ii de.
IticalTtssociation ; ,that the new states covern th iof papuU'ion, and by encreasinz the abilitv to
JlWiTtjtites5JU?3i yatth : iBJtyi.c a; cfi to CCaW-fffcdecmablf, te pre Vyajbjnon' Vc:
of the other commercial states prttiomina'td,
that the course, which, lias been 'atiapte;Wuou'd
have been the resort, a9 the means of relief ft om
such external difikuhies as those, with w hu k the9
nation has been pressed f Had New JlhI.m.iw, .
or N York,Jitood alone undtr circumstances of
similar foreign embarrasstm-nt, would thty o
either of theta have Tesorted to proclam iti vns
resirictionson-interebtfrse, embargo, and guvi
boata 1 Would the navy hate been neglected un
til the moment of war 'I Would the,, seaports,
after the war wss declared, have remaned thus
wholly defenceless f Should fehave tn?K,hed
into1 Canada to avenge impressraeni 7 ift'ob
that point, in the relative state of our naval force,
would war have been either defhrti or eommwd
Or if It hadTbfifcn. ' v?ovl it hot have been ri'ift
fwtitOy -iccndocted &Jtt&jf winV the ;'ityasure
which :'.pfecededvitd1he mode of catryiiig itoni, -are.
all. undeniably sourt hern -and wesferA : oliv
cy; and not the policy of the.;tcommjcal states.
Now it is in toy appvhensionj&f little imp irtiiricc
if the vital inteiestsof the commonweal h of Masj
sachusetts are destroyed, whether, the blow fee
given, through ignorance, indifferent?, r r de?
sign. r Under Jfjese injlueneca tfteff. pre' deMye
And if the apathy of the commercial utti & cca)
tinue, and the present spirit of party render, theni
blind to' their natural interestt, thetpolicy, -which
has wrought this destruction, will be ju-rpetua-ted-
This policy perpttuated, we may 'call ourJ
selves what weplease ;in the eye ' of. reasoned
common sense we are1 slave. And I alrV'fofr
I know the nature of the predominating; UiSuVua
c.s of those states slaves to no very detiracia ;
The question, so often agitated, concerning tli'ft
interest which Jlhe predominating influences of
is, intact, of more curiosity than use TIk mere
interest of a state never did, and never will hapo.
its policy except in t hose rare times when sucfj
high minded men. as Washington govern. Tlio
Protean herd of ordinary statesmen, such as al
ways will govern the U. States, tbe'i"'preU prd
portions of politicafpower continuing, never in'"
quire how the interests of a people ere to be se'rJ.
ved, but how their own power shall be pcrpett
ated. . ...... ;'' ',, ' 4' ' 4
Such men lay the foundation of their power!
i the passion and prejudices of the country, paf '
ticularly of those section s, which possess the pre
duminating influences. These are, in these. Ui ,
L5tjtes undeniably those of the ouih and th t
west , Now the passions of a people, tir .inlandi
always did, and always, will tend to jealousy and
envy of the seaboard ; and lead to a' course ct
policy depressing to its prosperity .Although
many individuals, in Such sections, icay enter
tain juster and more. liberal ideas, yet, these opir5
ions are those, which unavoidably penetrate the'
mass of thefr popuI;tion. The reason is obvious)
It is the tendenvyof commerce and navigation
to introduce into seaboard states, a rapid increase
of wealth, and a population, compact, active, en v
terprisnng, inttlligent:"and powerful. !t isitfti
possible, that states, which, from their situation! .
r a i " -a -
far inianoeu, xann,Qt snare, or out very remoieiy .
these advantages, should not look upon tha wealiU ' :
and strength of the seaboard, increasing in a very
great relative dispropoVtion of; their own, .without
some fear and a mixture of envy Hence, thcrts
insensibly grows up in Mhose sections, ;s-!dispas1
tion to check the prosperity of the and
above all a povy to embarrass and render un.
certain the employment of capital and population
on the ocean ; and to give to both an inland di
rection. Tliese dispositions, they will caVefuliy
conceal from the world, and, perhaps even fronr
themselves. "- But thet. must exist, because tht-y '
are natural to. men, in such circumstances,' and
because ambitious men, who would con rrol those
sections, are careful to instil them, if cut of powerr
and to gratify them if in it, fir the pu rpose of
obtaining that control over the passions of Sucjr
sections, as i necessary to effect the ends of their -own
History shows, that' such dispositions have al
ways, existed, in inland states towards seaboard
states. That they are WTtatural result of th'g
human passions, placed ifi 'S:ch .situa'ions,ni
not be denied. Our experience is perfectly coti
formable, with nature and history. . 74
The men, who now govern this e6u:itry,iaKj
the first foundalions'of their, power, by ejci:iii
in the inland states a jealousy of the rtlantic a .tt
commercial states The policy of Washington!
was strictly commercial. IV men .vlia
govern the U. States, commenced their career,
er- of opposition to hishBuenceVby. appealing to
the passions and fears of the interior, r-bti la
ton warned the southern tod western "rtstcs
gainst them without tff.-ct.- He foretold, that
thesemen would he satisfied with iiothimr sJioij" 7
of a change in his system of policy." ThV re
sult has proved hi prescience, t'hey arc ir)
power. The whele system ofhi-rpolicy is c!.iin;.
wd. In other words, a policy friendly to icni.
merce, is pulled down, and ' one, hosu!-j to it, fa
erectcd.on the ruins of his system.
. . ' '' (TO BE CONTISl'KD.)
Strap, ..-' ;'. : ;:;;v
V1L stand at fpenry'fivo dcllars, and hot t;ver- '
ty dollars the seasanTa' ironeously m;e.l- ia '.'
the hills, r'- '-;' IfKNHY COfliiN.
Tbptflur!i r ; c.